10 best Java frameworks to use in 2021

10 best Java frameworks to use in 2021

Java is a powerful language. When combined with a framework, Java can provide you with the best solutions for any domain of e-commerce, banking, cloud computing, finance, big data, stock market, and more.

If you are just starting with Java, please refer to Java Live Active using this blog to start using the framework with all the important concepts you need to know.

What is a Java framework?

The body of pre-written code as a template or skeleton, where a developer can fill in its code as needed to use and reuse to create an application, so that they can use the code used when they intend to use it as a framework to create an application. The reuse framework enables developers to create each line of code manually from scratch without manual overhead. The Java framework is specific to the Java programming language and is used as a platform for developing software applications. The Java program. The java framework can include predefined classes and functions for processing, inputting, and managing hardware devices, as well as interacting with system software. It depends on the type of framework, the skill level of the programmer, what they are trying to accomplish, and their preferences.

Why use a framework?

The framework provides the structure for your application. For example, if we have an appropriate testing framework, we can automate a lot of things and get accurate and consistent results. In the same way, if there are frameworks such as orm, web applications, logging, data management, etc., it will make developers' lives simple and help them focus on business logic instead of worrying about common codes used in domains or applications.

10 best Java frameworks

Although there are many frameworks for Java, there are some very commonly used types of different types of frameworks-web applications, web applications, logging, testing, ORM, etc. Note that these have their own benefits and can work best use cases for different businesses. We can't say which is better, because they are all good in different scenarios.


With its concept of dependency injection and aspect-oriented programming features, Spring develops the world line by line. It is an open source framework for enterprise applications.

In spring, developers can create loosely coupled modules, where dependencies are handled by the framework, rather than based on libraries in the code.

The Spring framework is exhaustive, covers many functions, including security and configuration, and is easy to learn. In addition, since it is the most popular web framework, you can find a lot of documentation and active communities.

With everything configured, your code will be clean and easy to understand.

Main concepts:

  • Dependency Injection (DI) (inversion of control)-In this principle, instead of sequentially controlling the flow of applications, it enables control to an external controller that drives the flow. External controllers are events. When something happens, the application process continues. This provides flexibility for applications. In the spring, IOC is completed by DI, of which three types-Setter injection, method injection and constructor injection.
  • Bean and Spring context-In Spring, objects are called beans, and there is a beanfactory to manage and configure these beans. You can think of BeanFactory as a container for instantiating, configuring, and managing beans. Most applications use XML (beans.xml) for configuration. ApplicationContext which BeanFactory is used for more complex applications requires event propagation, declaration mechanism and integration with Spring's side-oriented features.
  • Read about some more major Spring concepts.

2.Apache Struts

Apache Struts is another powerful open source framework for web applications. It follows the MVC (Model-View-Controller) model and extends the JSP API. In the traditional servlet-jsp method, if the user submits the detailed information description form to us, the information is then transferred to the Servlet for processing, or control is transferred to the next JSP (Java Server Pages-where you can write Java code HTML ). Since the "View" or presentation layer ideally has no business logic, this will make complex applications confusing.

Struts separates the view, controller and model (data), and provides the binding between them through the configuration file Struts-config.xml.

The controller is an actionservlet, in which you can write a template for the view, and use ActionForm JavaBean to maintain user data. The operation object is responsible for forwarding the application process.

This view is maintained by a rich tag library.

Struts is easy to set up and provides greater flexibility and scalability using traditional MVC methods through Servlet and JSP alone. This may be a good starting point for your career as a web developer.


Although Hibernate is not a full-stack framework, it completely changes the way we view databases. Implementation of Java Persistence API (JPA), Hibernate is an object-relational mapping (ORM) database for Java applications. Just like SQL, the query in Hibernate is called HQL (Hibernate Query Language).

Hibernate directly maps Java classes to corresponding database tables, and vice versa.

The main file in Hibernate is the hibernate.cfg.xml file, which contains information about mapping Java classes, including database configuration.

Hibernate solves the two main problems of JDBC-JDBC-JDBC does not support object-level relationships. If you decide to migrate to a different database, your old queries may not work properly-meaning a lot of changes-namely time and money!

Hibernate provides an abstraction layer that makes the code loosely coupled with the database. Things such as establishing a database connection, performing CRUD operations are handled by Hibernate-so developers don't need to implement it, thus making the code independent of the database used.

Choose one or more of these beginner and advanced courses to get a complete overview of Hibernate and JPA.

4. Apache Wicket.

If you are already working with JSP, learning Wicket will become Cakewalk. A simple Java web framework, Wicket has a component-oriented structure, all you need to know is Java and HTML. There are absolutely no XML or configuration files!

The main feature of Wicket is the IT POJO model, in which the components are very simple (plain old) Java objects with OOP capabilities. These components act as reusable packages as reusable packages, which contain images, buttons, forms, links, pages, containers, behaviors, etc. so that developers can customize them.

Wicket is light-weighted, you can be sure to build an application. It is also easy to write unit test code in the wicket.

5. JSF (Java Server Faces)

Don't confuse JSF with JSP, this is just a text document that can have static and dynamic content. JSF was developed by Oracle as part of Java Enterprise Edition 7.

It is a component-based MVC framework with reusable UI components for server-based applications. The main idea is to encapsulate various client-side technologies such as CSS, JavaScript, and HTML, which will allow developers to create UI without knowing any in-depth technology. They can only drag and drop UI components and pay more attention to the details of their presentation layer.

The default template system in JSF is Facelets. JSF is very similar to Struts.

JSF can be further seamlessly integrated with Ajax-enabled components to enrich the user experience by adding Ajax events for validation and method calls.

Check out this linked course to learn more about JSF.


Another Java framework matches its name-Wizard. This lightweight framework allows you to complete the application very quickly because it is a frame support for advanced configuration, logging, application metrics, etc. You can create RESTful web applications that provide high performance, which is stable and reliable.

DropWizard is especially magical because it brings together a series of libraries such as Jetty, Guava, Jersy, Jackson and many others in the java ecosystem, and provides you with lightweight and lean applications.

Since all configuration, security and performance-related tasks have integrated libraries, because all the configuration you need to do is just like a developer builds business logic.

DropWizard is an open source framework bundled with the library, you can easily use the Eclipse IDE to set up and create a simple project to learn (trust me, you can learn the array yourself!). The basic tutorial on the DropWizard website will help you through every step.

7. Grails.

Grails is an easy-to-learn full-stack framework, suitable for people who are just starting a programming career. Although Grails is a web framework written in Groovy programming language, it runs on the Java platform and is perfectly compatible with Java syntax. The framework is based on the MVC design pattern.

Groovy is similar to Java and has some more features than Java. If you already know Java, it is very easy to learn Groovy.

JSP Grails GSP Groovy Server Grails GOM Grails ORM Hibernate GOM Grails RESTful API

- Java Grails Groovy Java -

Grails Eclipse NetBeans Java IDE Web


ATG Java Web Commerce Oracle B2B B2C ATG

ATG - Oracle WebLogic IBM WebSphere JBoss

3 -

  • Dynamo - JavaBeans JSP ATG Java
  • - -
  • -

ATG is a broad framework, and you need time and patience to learn it. Several big companies like Wal-Mart, Mekki, Best, ASDA, etc. all have their websites, built on ATG.

9 Play

Play is a slightly traditional and unique type of framework that follows "conventions" through configuration methods. It is based on the MVC model and is an open source web application framework. In addition to Java, you can write and play web applications in Scala.

Play is similar to Django or Ruby on Rails or ASP.NET architecture, and does not necessarily follow the J2EE Web standard.

Some of the features of Play are

  • High performance due to asynchronous processing
  • No container, no state, based on the principle of reaction
  • Use a statically typed language, so most errors are caught at compile time and save a lot of errors early in the development life cycle.
  • Scala explores true OOP and some functional programming concepts. Its compatibility with Java is made for an excellent and powerful system.
  • Using Play2, a new powerful build system SBT has been released, which makes it easy to integrate with Maven Projects and create simple JAR files.
  • Extensive relational database access library for common functions.

10. Apache Hadoop.

Although Apache Hadoop is not a full-stack framework, it provides a software framework and works on the MapReduce programming model. These utilities can easily handle large amounts of data (big data), store, analyze and process them to provide faster and more efficient results.

I included Hadoop in this list because it is today's "thing" with the prominence of big data.

Hadoop facilitates distributed data storage and processing using a master-slave design pattern. The Hadoop HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) layer of the master node (NameNode) has data nodes. The MapReduce layer has JobTracker and TaskTracker. The slave nodes have data nodes and TaskTracker respectively.

HDFS divides files into block sets, and these files are replicated in the cluster.

If you want to be familiar with big data and data science-Hadoop is the place to start. Learn Hadoop easily through these tutorials.

11. GWT.

Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is an obvious framework created by Google to create rich Internet applications in Java. One of the best features of GWT is that it converts Java code into JavaScript code-browser-based ultra-custom code. I personally like this feature because we used to spend a lot of time and energy in browser testing during development. Using this open source tool set, we can write high-performance Web applications in a shorter time. If you already have a code base, you can easily integrate it with GWT, because GWT is also compatible with Eclipse IDE, Maven and Junit. The framework also provides an extensive library of widgets that can perform most tasks, enabling beginners in Java to even develop business logic without worrying about basic things. The GWT framework has 3 main components-a Java to JS compiler, a JAVA simulation library sitting on top of the core JRE library, and a GWT UI construction library that includes UI components, history management and more functions.

Start learning GWT here.

12. vaadin.

Vaadin is a flagship product and a platform where developers can use Java to implement HTML5 Web UI. It is an open source platform that includes a Java web framework and a set of web components as well as application launchers and tools. These web components form the core of Vaadin and can be customized, resulting in high-performance and versatile code for desktop and mobile applications.

Vaadin Flow is the actual Java Framework part of the Vaadin platform, responsible for client-server communication and routing. Using Vaadin Flow, you can write web applications completely in Java without FUSS of JS or CSS. The UI component uses automatic communication with the browser and server to handle the user's browser activities. You can easily integrate Vaadin components into any IDE you use, with only a cross-platform framework, so there is no need to worry about migrating the code to other platforms.

Building Java applications is a completely new approach so that you can focus solely on the presentation layer without worrying about client-server communication. It also has a data binding API, which can use type-safe Java code and abstraction layers to map UI components to the database so that HTML templates and Java can be used to build reusable components in the UI.


Another Masterstroke from Apache, Spark is an open source web development framework that has similar functions to Spring, Play and JAX-RS, but is more powerful and does not follow the traditional MVC design pattern.

It is a micro-framework and a domain-specific language used in Java with a focus on development speed. It requires very little configuration and coding. Due to in-memory calculations, it is 10 times faster than Hadoop in data processing. Spark supports a fully dynamic framework, supports delayed initialization and real-time data processing.

It is also easy to integrate with Scala and R, which is a programming language focused on data science and big data. The main goal of Spark is to process large amounts of data and support advanced analysis using SQL queries, machine learning, and graph algorithms.

Don't think that Spark can replace Hadoop-it can be an extension of the functionality provided by Hadoop-learn these two frameworks If you enter the field of data science, these two frameworks will give you advantages.

14. OpenXava.

A low-code platform for developing web applications in a fast way, you can start and run business applications in record time. It is composed of business components, making it simple to build even complex applications and can provide trouble for developers. OpenXava is extensible, customizable and OO, using Java classes as its core to simulate business problems. This model-driven development approach ensures packaging. The developer only defines the model as a general-annotated Java class, and the necessary functions are generated at runtime.

The structure and philosophy of OpenXava follow the business component architecture instead of the traditional MVC architecture. Here, everything is a business idea, and all artifacts that contribute to a business concept are related views, models or controllers in the same place.

Before you understand this framework, you should definitely read the concepts behind this language.

15. Vert.x.

Developed by Eclipse, Vert.x is an event-driven application framework that uses Java, JS, Groovy, Scala and many other languages. So it is essentially multi-glue. It relies on the asynchronous programming model so that the application is not clogged and there is no multithreading.

Vert.x can be said to be a toolkit that provides APIs in multiple languages to perform all the asynchronous tasks required by web applications-recording, authentication, monitoring, DB connection, multi-cluster support, etc... There are 2 main in Vert concept. X-

  • verticle-Just like any other asynchronous model, there is an event loop that has messages, network buffers, HTTP requests, etc. Every event from the event loop is handled by vertice.
  • Event bus-Different vertices use the event bus to communicate with each other. This is done through asynchronous messaging. The event bus can perform different types of messaging, such as point, broadcast, and request-response.

The best way about Vert.x is its non-blocking nature, which makes web applications highly performant. The framework can be used for any application-small, medium or large-scale. If you already know node.js, you will appreciate vert.x more, because it has all the features of Node.js and the benefits of the Java virtual machine, and it makes a powerful and powerful combination.


Conceptually, Tapestry is similar to JSF and Wicket. It is an open source, cross-platform, component-based web application development framework that can create highly scalable applications. Built on Rich Java Servlet API, it is suitable for any container or application server. Tapestry is a truly object-oriented framework because you use pure HTML templates or ordinary Java classes (objects) to create HTML pages. There is almost no necessary XML configuration, and Tapestry uses comments quite a bit, making the code simple and easy to manage.

With Tapestry, application downtime is minimal, as any changes can even be hot-plugged evenly without restarting the server. Tapestry is also responsible for URL construction and redirection. Unlike other frameworks, the framework here adapts to the code, not vice versa.

Some of the tapestry of unboxing features are-file upload, pagination, field validation, date and calendar logic, internalization, display pop-up windows, etc...

It is easy to integrate tapestry code with back-end frameworks such as spring and hibernation, and frameworks such as exenium such as testing frameworks.


Jersey is a web service framework that can create RESTful services and supports JAX-RS API. Through useful functions and practical functions, it greatly simplifies the development of RESTful services. Jersey provides an abstraction layer so that developers do not have to worry about the low-level implementation of client-server communication and can focus on the main web service functions.

Contrary to any other quiet framework, a striking feature of Jersey is that it allows Chunked output, that is, the server can send a response to the client in the part or block. This is useful when large data must be sent, and blocks of data can be sent when preparing the entire response.

Jersey can also easily test the infrastructure. You can write lightweight integration tests that are mainly based on JUnit. Combined with the Maven environment, it is also easy to integrate testing. All you need to do is add the dependencies in pom.xml.

18. OSGI.

OSGI or Open Service Gateway Initiative defines a component-based system. It is a popular Java framework in which each component is called a bundle. Each bundle has an independent life cycle and does not depend on other bundles. Consider that the bundle is a JAR file with an OSGi specific title. Bundles must clearly state the packages they need to access, without which OSGI platform.

Bundles use the JVM-level service registry to discover, publish and bind bundles as services. This is the essence of OSGI-for modular application architecture, which promotes adaptability and rapid changes without timeout (runtime flexibility).

OSGI is mainly popular because of its easy integration with Eclipse and Maven-based projects.

OSGI has some good concepts and benefits, but due to individual independent bundled version control may be a problem. This may be a major disadvantage of using this framework over other frameworks. However, since modularity and isolated course loading are important concepts for developers, it is worth investing some time in this framework.


Drools is a popular business rules management system. It has a business rules engine (BRE), authoring, rule management application and runtime support for decision making and symbolic models. The rule management application is called Drools Workbench. The project is supported by Redhat and Jboss. Using Drools, developers can easily separate data from business logic. The two main steps in Drools are

  • Authoring-create rules file
  • Runtime-where you execute the rule

The most important feature of Drools is that you can delete and add new rules at any time without restarting the server.

Drools is an application that relies on a large number of conditions for certain actions. For example, to check whether a person is eligible to upgrade his plan, for example, there are certain set rules-for example, the number of customers on hand, the customer's bill amount is greater than a certain limit, etc. These rules can be defined as decision tables instead of hard-coding them in the code. Any changes do not require another way to build, complete testing or redeployment!

20. Mybatis.

Apache's free software, MyBatis is a persistent framework in Java, where Java methods map SQL statements, and ORM maps Java objects to tables in the database. The mapping engine uses XML descriptors or comments in a declarative manner to map SQL results to the object tree.

In many ways, Mybatis is better than JDBC and Hibernate. MyBatis can dynamically generate SQL statements that separate them from the code. It also provides query caching for easy access. The API is very simple, you don't have to be an expert in SQL or a database to be able to write MyBatis code.

Mybatis is a good alternative to Hibernate and JDBC, when your application is not too complicated and you want simple box functions, such as database connection, transaction management, loading database driver, management and release connection and other frameworks. Mybatis can also be easily integrated with a spring frame.

21. Apache Mina.

Apache Mina is a web application framework, developers can easily create highly scalable and performance web applications. Whether using TCP/IP, UDP, LDAP, NTP, DNS, etc. or a custom protocol, Mina has a unified API for all transmissions. The framework can provide high-level and low-level network APIs. Mina completely handles I/O operations, helping developers to fully focus on business logic and other application requirements. It is easy to test code written with the help of mock objects. You can easily learn MINA using Eclipse IDE. It can be combined with popular frameworks, such as Spring and Picocontainer, making it a popular choice for web applications.

Mina is better than Soap, more stable and reliable. It has a rich network library to handle concurrent threads.

Learn more about Apache Mina from their official page.


There are many other Java frameworks that are not full stack or web development frameworks, but are very useful in every application-like Logging, JUnit and Selenium for testing and so on. It is important, although you can learn about them along with the other frameworks seen in the list above, you can learn about these issues.

The best framework you apply for should meet your business needs, provide a certain degree of flexibility and best performance, and be easy to maintain and absorb changes.

For example, for a full stack web development framework, if something needs to be changed, it should affect the application the least, that is, you don't have to build and deploy the application again to make small changes. Just a configuration change should do magic. Such applications save downtime and provide flexibility.

Choose the Java framework wisely and enjoy the features provided by Java.